Monday, November 23, 2015

Ideal Gas Equation - van der Waals equation

pV = nRT

Van der Waals correction

[p + n²a/V²] [V-nb] = nRT

(Van der Waals Birthday  23 November)

Updated 23 Nov 2015, 4 Feb 2008

Study Guide TMH JEE Ch.24 Benzene

JEE syllabus



Electrophile Substitution Reactions
--- Sulphonation
--- Friedel-Crafts Alkylation
--- Friedel-Crafts Acylation

Effect of --, m- and p- directing groups in mono-substituted benzenes

Main Topics Covered in the TMH Book








Important themes of the Chapter/Topic

Benzene has the molecular formula C6H6. It has hexagonal ring of six carbon atoms with three double bonds in alternate positions.

Arenes are the aromatic hydrocarbons which contain one or more hexagonal rings of carbon atoms with double bonds in alternate positions.

I. Structure

1. Benzene is a liquid hydrocarbon of formula C-6H-6.
2. It is a cyclic molecule in the shape of a flat hexagon.
3. In the bonds among six carbon atoms three have to be double bonds so that tetravalent bonding arrangement is preserved and the double bonds have to be alternate bonds in the ring.
4. The resonance energy of benezene is about 150.6 kJ per mol.
5. All carbon-carbon bond distances in benzene are equal (139 pm) and are intermediate in length between single (154 pm) and double bonds (134 pm)
6. Benzene is a planaer molecule where each carbon is sp^2 hybridized.
7. Of the three hybrid orbitals, two are used in sigma-bonding with two other carbon atoms and the third is used in sigma-bonding with hydrogen atom.
8. In addition to hybrid orbitals, eahc carbon has one p orbital occupied by one electron. This orbital lies perpendiculars to the plane of benzene ring, and hence this electron is of pi-type.
9. The p orbital of each carbon atom can overlap with the adjacent p orbitals making additional bond of pi-type. But this bond is not localized between two carbon atoms. But forms two continuous doughnut-shaped electon cloud one lying above and the other below the plane of cyclic carbon skeleton. The delocalization of pi-electrons gives rise to resonance energy and makes the molecule more stable.
10. The overlap of p orbitals in both directions gives rise to resonance hybrid of two strctures known as Kekule structures.
(August Kekule presented the structure of Benzene on 27 January 1865)
II. Nomenclature

III. Aromaticity

Aromatic compound are those which resemble benzene om chemical behaviour. These compounds contain alternate double and singe carbon-carbon bonds in a cyclic structure. They are more stable compared to aliphatic hydrocarbons having double bonds and undergo substitution reactions rather than addition reactions. These two characteristic behaviours in combination is aromatic character or aromaticity.

1. A molecule acquires aromatic characteristics provided it has cyclic clouds of delocalized pi-electrons above and below the plane of the molecule and this pi- clouds have a total of (4n+2) pi-electrons. This requirement of 4n+2 pi-electrons is known as 4n+2 rule or Huckel rule.
2. Examples are benzene (n = 1), naphthalene (n = 2) and anthracene (n = 3).

The modern theory of aromaticity was advanced by Eric Huckel. For aromaticity, the molecule must be planar, cyclic system having delocalised (4n+2) pi elctrons.
IV. Isomerism

V. Preparation of benzene and its homologues

1. From alkynes: acetylene and other alkynes polymerise at high temperatures to give benzene and other arenes.

3C2H2 gives C6H6

Benzene was first synthesized by Berthelot by passing acetylene through red hot iron tube.

2 Decarboxylation of aromatic acids: by heating sodium benzoate with soda lime

Decarboxylation: Removal carboxyl group

3. From phenol: by distillation of phenol with zinc.

4.From diazonium salts reduction of benzene diazonium with hypophosphorus acid (H3PO2)

5. From aryl halides

6. From Friedel Craft's reaction
Benzene is treated with alkyl halide in the presence of anhydrous aluminium chloride. For example when the alkyl halide is monochloromethane, Toluene(methylbenzene - methyl group substituted for one H in benzene is obtained)

7. From Grignard's reagent: reacting aromatic Grignard reagent with alkyl halide

Ex: Phenyl magnesium bromide + Isopropyl bromide in ether give isopropyl benzene.

Va. Physical properties

i) colour less liquids up to eight carbon atoms
ii) aromatic hydrocarbons are insoluble in water ut soluble in organic solvents.
iii) They are inflammable and burn with sooty flame
iv) M.P. and B.P. increase with increasing molecular mass.
v) they are toxic and carcinogenic in nature.

VI. Chemical properties

Even though double bonds are present, benzene is quite stable and does not undergo common addition reactions undergone by alkenes.

Benzene and other arenes undergo following types of reactions.

1. substitution
2. addition
3. oxidation

VIa. Substitution Reactions in Benzene

1. The typlical reactions of the benzene ring are those in which the pi-electrons serve as a source of electrons for electrophylic (acidic) reagents. In these substitution reactions, hydrogen atoms attached to carbon atoms are replaced by another atom or group of atoms.
2. Because of delolcalization of pi-electrons, benzene does not show addition reactions as in the case of alkenes(presence of double bond).

3. Halogenation

benzene will react with a mixture of Cl-2 and FeCl-3.

The output is a combination of benzene with Cl, Cl diplacing one hydrogen atom from benzene(Chlorobenzene).

4. Nitration
A mixture of nitric acid and sulphuric acid is the nitrating agent.
(a) The reaction between nitric acid and sulphuric acid gives nitronium ion. Nitric acid acts as base in this reaction and donate OH giving No-2^+

(b) the nitronium ion makes the electrophylic attack on benzene. Benzonium ion is formed. This step is a slow reaction or step. Hence this is a rate determining step. Benzonium ion is a carbocation. It is a resonance hybrid.

(c) From the benzonium ion the proton is removed by the HSO-4^- which is a product of step (a). Thus a combination benzene and NO-2 that displaces one hydrogen atom from benzene is formed.

5. Sulphonation

The product is a combination Benzene and SO-3H that displaced one hydrogen atom from benzene.

For sulphonation we require excess of H-2SO-4 along with SO-3.

6. Friedel-Crafts Alkylation

Benzene reacts with a combination of alkyl halide and AlCl-3. AlCl-3 acts as a Lewis acid.

The alkyl group replaces one hydrogen atom in benzene.

7. Friedel-Crafts Acylation

Acylation is the term given to substituting an acyl group such as CH-3CO- into another molecule. An acyl group is a hydrocarbon group attached to a carbon-oxygen double bond.

The most commonly used example of an acyl group is the ethanoyl group, CH3CO-.

If you react benzene with ethanoyl chloride in the presence of an aluminium chloride catalyst, the equation for the reaction is:

C-6H-6 + CH-3CoCl ------> C-6H-5-COCH-3 + HCl

In the simplified formula for the product, the phenyl group is usually written on the left-hand side and the alkyl group to the right of the carbon-oxygen double bond.

The aluminium chloride is acting as a catalyst.

The product is called phenylethanone (old name, acetophenone).


Mechanism of electrophilic substitution reactions of benzene

VIb. Addition reactions

VIc. Oxidation reactions

VII. Effect of --, m- and p- directing groups in mono-substituted benzenes

In planning syntheses based on substitution reactions of mono-substituted benzenes, you must be able to predict in advance which of the available positions of the ring are most likely to be substituted.

Basically, three problems are involved in the substitution reactions of aromatic compounds: (a) proof of the structures of the possible isomers, o, m, p, that are formed; (b) the percentage of each isomer formed, if the product is a mixture; and (c) the reactivity of the compound being substituted relative to some standard substance, usually benzene.

a. the Pattern of Orientation in Aromatic Substitution

The reaction most studied in connection with the orientation problem is nitration, but the principles established also apply for the msot part ot the related reactions of halogenation, sulfonation, alkylation and acylation.
web sites
Notes on the Structure and Nomenclature-naming of Aromatic Compounds

Updated  23 Nov 2015, 14 Oct 2007

Chemistry Knowledge History - February

February 1
Emilio Segrè born 1905: codiscovered technetium (Tc, element 43) and astatine (At, 85); spontaneous fission; antiproton; Nobel Prize (Physics), 1959
Roger Yonchien Tsien born 1952: green fluorescent protein, GFP; Nobel Prize, 2008.

February 2
Jean Baptiste Boussingault born 1802: agricultural chemistry; isolated and named sorbitol; role of nitrogen in plant nutrition.
Leaded gasoline first marketed in the US in Dayton, OH, 1923. Thomas Midgley, Jr., of General Motors Research labs added tetraethyllead to gasoline.
Albert Schatz born 1920: discovery of antitubercular agent streptomycin. Schatz's version of the discovery differs from the standard account in which Selman Waksman receives near-exclusive credit. The patent (US 2,449,866).

February 3
Leonora Neuffer Bilger born 1893: asymmetric nitrogen compounds; Garvan Medal, 1953

February 4
Joseph Goldberger begins the experiment that demonstrates that pellagra is a dietary disease, 1915.

Friedrich Hund born 1896: Hund's rules for electron configurations, the first of which predicts maximum multiplicity of spin; molecular-orbital theory (Hund-Mulliken approach).

John Jacob Livingood made radium E (210Bi) by bombarding common bismuth with deuterons, 1936, the first synthetis of a radioactive substance in the US.

February 5

John Boyd Dunlop born 1840; manufactured pneumatic rubber tires.
Lafayette Benedict Mendel born 1872: modern science of nutrition; codiscovered vitamin A and B complex; linked nutritive value of proteins to their amino acids.

February 6
William Parry Murphy born 1892: diabetes; pernicious anemia and other blood diseases; Nobel Prize (Medicine), 1934
Clemens Winkler, in the course of analyzing a mineral, discovered element (germanium, Ge, element 32) in 1886, consistent with predictions by J. A. R. Newlands and Dmitrii Mendeleev.
Nikolai Dmitrievich Zelinskii born 1861: catalysis of hydrocarbon disproportionations; bromination of fatty acids (Hell-Volhard-Zelinsky reaction)

February 7
Ulf Svante von Euler born 1905: identification of noradrenaline (norepinephrine) as a neurotransmitter; son of 1929 Nobel laureate biochemist Hans von Euler-Chelpin; Nobel Prize (medicine), 1970.
John Brown Francis Herreshoff born 1850: manufacture of sulfuric acid

February 8
Bernard Courtois born 1777: discovered iodine (I, element 53) from seaweed
Moses Gomberg born 1866: work on triphenylmethyl (first stable organic free radical); tautomerism
Robert Holton announces total synthesis of taxol, an important cancer drug, 1994.
Francis Robert Japp  born 1848: benzil, benzoin, and phenanthraquinone.
Dmitrii Mendeleev born 1834 : periodic law and periodic table.
Friedlieb Runge born 1795: discovered carbolic acid (phenol) and aniline in coal tar; dry distillation

February 9
Edward Charles Baly born 1871: showed that organic compounds, including sugars, can be formed photochemically from water, carbon dioxide, and ammonia
Californium (Cf, element 98) discovered by  Kenneth Street, Jr., Stanley G. Thompson, Glenn T. Seaborg, and Albert Ghiorso using ion-exchange chromatography at University of California, Berkeley, 1950.
Lloyd Ferguson born 1918: chemical educator
Norman Bruce Hannay born 1921: materials for solid state electronics

February 10
Per Teodor Cleve born 1840: discovered holmium and thulium; suggested "didymium" was not elementary; naphthalene derivatives.
John Franklin Enders born 1897: showed polio virus was not only neurotropic; Nobel Prize (Medicine), 1954.
Ira Remsen born 1846: prominent American organic chemist; founder of American Chemical Journal; first professor of chemistry at Johns Hopkins University; saccharin was discovered in his lab

February 11
Fred Basolo born 1920: organometallics.
Thomas Alva Edison born 1847: inventor (incandescent light (US 233,898), phonograph (US 200,521, electrical systems, etc.).
Josiah Willard Gibbs born 1839: thermodynamics and the phase rule; the Gibbs free energy is named after him.
Izaak Kolthoff born 1894: analytical chemistry.
Alwin Mittasch  and Christian Schneider filed US patent application for catalytic production of methanol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen (U.S. patent 1,201,850) in 1914.
William Henry Fox Talbot born 1800: photography pioneer.

February 12
Pierre-Louis Dulong born 1785: discovered nitrogen trichloride; refractive indices and specific heats of gases; law of Dulong and Petit (specific heat times atomic weight is the same for many elements); suggested that acids were compounds of hydrogen; formula for heat content of fuel (Dulong formula)

Moritz Traube born 1826: physiological chemist; semipermeable membranes, sugars, respiration, fermentation, putrefaction, oxidation, protoplasm, and muscle

February 13

Heinrich Caro born 1834: Caro's acid (H2SO5), dye chemistry.
Étienne-François Geoffroy born 1672: chemical affinities; displacement reactions in salt
Henry Clemens Pearson born 1858: rubber scientist and editor; see his books, Crude rubber and compounding ingredients and The rubber country of the Amazon

February 14

Herbert Aaron Hauptman born 1917: mathematical methods for crystal structures; Nobel Prize, 1985.
Lawrencium (Lr, element 103) was produced in 1961 by Torbjorn Sikkeland, Albert Ghiorso, and Almon Larsh and Robert Latimer, at University of California, Berkeley.
Julius Nieuwland born 1878: synthetic rubber pioneer (US patent 1,811,959); acetylene chemistry. .
Agnes Pockels born 1862: liquid surfaces: surface tension and films; invention of the slide trough and surface film balance. Read her article on surface tension.
Dennis Searle and E. M. Skillings found borax and other soluble salts near San Bernardino, CA, 1873.

February 15
Synthesis of diamond by Francis Bundy, H. Tracy Hall, Herbert Strong, & Robert H. Wentoff, Jr., at General Electric Research Laboratories announced in 1955.

Hans K. A. S. von Euler-Chelpin born 1873: enzymes and fermentation; father of 1970 Nobel laureate Ulf Svante von Euler; Nobel Prize, 1929

George Johnstone Stoney born 1826: suggested that electrical charge came in discrete units; coined term electron for "atom of electricity".

February 16

Julius Thomsen born 1826: heats of reaction, relative strength of acids, manufacture of soda from cryolite
John Rex Whinfield born 1901: terephthalic acid polyester fibers (terylene).

Robert Williams born 1886: isolation, synthesis, and manufacture of Vitamin B1 (thiamine).

February 17
Friedrich Konrad Beilstein born 1838: his standard reference work on organic chemistry was first published in 1880-83 and has been updated ever since

Wallace Henry Coulter born 1913: instrument maker; developed instrumentation to characterize particles.
Dmitrii Mendeleev sketched his first draft periodic table, 1869.

Otto Stern born 1888: quantization of angular momentum (Stern-Gerlach experiment); Nobel Prize (physics), 1943.

February 18

Harry Brearley born 1871: development of stainless steel
John Sinfelt born 1931: platinum-iridium catalysts in petroleum refining. Read a book chapter by Sinfelt on materials and catalysis.
Frederick Soddy introduced the term "isotopic" (meaning "same place") for elements which share the same place in the periodic table in 1913.

Alessandro Volta born 1745: invented the voltaic pile, the first electric battery; discovered and isolated methane. The unit of electric potential, the volt, is named in his honor.
(18 February 2015 - Google carries doodle in the honour of Volta)

The Voltaic Pile


Science Online

February 19
Svante Arrhenius born 1859: electrolytic dissociation, viscosity, reaction rates, and even the greenhouse effect; Nobel prize, 1903

Louis-Georges Gouy born 1854: interfacial electrical double layer.
Gottlieb Sigismund Kirchhof born 1764: catalytically produced glucose from starch.
Roderick MacKinnon born 1956: structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels; Nobel Prize, 2003
Ernest Marsden born 1889: scattering of alpha particles (work with Hans Geiger in Ernest Rutherford's lab), contributing to the development of the nuclear model of the atom.
One atom of mendelevium (Md, element 101) was produced by Gregory R. Choppin, Glenn Seaborg, Bernard G. Harvey, and Albert Ghiorso in 1955 by bombarding a billion atoms of 253Es with helium.
Ferdinand Reich born 1799: codiscovered indium (In, element 49)

February 20

Isaac Adams, Jr. born 1836: pioneer in nickel plating.
Ludwig Boltzmann born 1844: statistical mechanics; thermodynamics, especially the second law; Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of molecular speeds; Stefan-Boltzmann law of blackbody radiation; Boltzmann constant is named after him

Henry Eyring born 1901: chemical kinetics (transition-state theory, Eyring equation)
Helen Murray Free born 1923: diagnostic chemistry: reagents and instrumentation for clinical diagnosis in blood and urine chemistry, histology, and cytology
Robert Huber born 1937: three-dimensional structure of proteins involved in photosynthesis; Nobel Prize, 1988

February 21

Carl Henrik Dam born 1895: vitamin K as a dietary factor in blood clotting; Nobel Prize (medicine), 1943.
Humphry Davy reads paper introducing the name chlorine (to replace oxymuriatic acid) and asserting its elementary nature, 1811.

Oliver Wolcott Gibbs born 1822: early American inorganic and analytical chemist (Harvard); founding member of US National Academy of Sciences
Edwin Land demonstrates Polaroid camera to optical society meeting, 1947.
John Mercer born 1791: treated cotton with caustic soda (mercerized cotton); discovered some calico dyes
Dorothy Virginia Nightingale born 1902: synthetic organic chemistry, particularly reactions of alkylbenzenes in the presence of aluminum chloride; Garvan Medal, 1959

February 22
Johannes Nicolaus Brønsted born 1879: acid-base theory and properties of ions; kinetics and catalysis; nitramide

Heinrich Hertz born 1857: discovered electromagnetic waves and the photoelectric effect.
Pierre Jules Cesar Janssen born 1824: astronomical spectroscopy and photography, particularly of the Sun; found a line in the solar spectrum subsequently identified with helium.
Fritz Strassmann born 1902: nuclear fission.
Friedrich Wöhler wrote a letter to J. J. Berzelius stating that he had synthesized urea, an early synthesis of an organic compound from inorganic materials, 1828.

February 23
First organizational meeting of the Chemical Society of London, 1841. (The Royal Society of Chemistry is its successor organization.)

Casimir Funk born 1884: discovered vitamins and named them (vitamines)
Charles Martin Hall first produced electrolytic aluminum in 1886 (US patent 400,766).
Thomas Midgley, Jr., received US patent 1,573,846 for tetraethyllead as an anti-knock agent in gasoline, 1926.
Glenn Theodore Seaborg and coworkers chemically identified plutonium (Pu, element 94) at University of California, Berkeley, 1941.

February 24
First atom of element 107, eventually named Bohrium (Bh) was observed at GSI Laboratories, Darmstadt, Germany in 1981.

John Gorham born 1783: wrote Elements of Chemical Science, an early American chemistry text.
Karl Graebe born 1841: organic synthesis (alizarin) and nomenclature (ortho, meta, para prefixes).
Eugène Melchior Peligot born 1811: isolated uranium metal; identified glucose in diabetics' urine.
William Summer Johnson born 1913: synthesis of complex molecules

February 25
Ruth Erica (Leroi) Benesch born 1925: oxygen-carrying capacity of hemoglobin; role of sulfur in proteins
Arthur Becket Lamb born 1880: editor of the Journal of the American Chemical Society, 1917-1949.
Phoebus Aaron Theodor Levene born (as Fishel Aaronovich Lenin) 1869: biochemistry, hexosamines, and stereochemistry.
Ida Eva Noddack born  1896: co-discoverer of rhenium (Re, element 75) with husband Walter and Otto Berg; suggested (correctly) that nuclear fission rather than transuranic elements explained results reported by Enrico Fermi.
Mary Locke Petermann born 1908: ribosomes and protein synthesis

February 26
Marjorie Beckett Caserio born 1929: physical organic chemistry: kinetics and mechanisms; chemical education: Basic Principles of Organic Chemistry
Benoit Paul Emile Clapeyron born 1799: relationship between temperature, volume, and heat of vaporization (Clapeyron and Clausius-Clapeyron equations).
Herbert Henry Dow born 1866: electrolytic production of bromine; founder of Dow Chemical.
Giulio Natta born 1903: polymer chemistry including polymer stereochemistry; Nobel Prize, 1963
William Joseph Sparks born 1905: advances in synthetic rubber.
Ahmed Zewail born 1946: "femtochemistry" (dynamics on a sub-picosecond time scale); Nobel Prize, 1999

February 27

James Chadwick's note announcing the possible discovery of the neutron is published in Nature, 1932.

Robert Grubbs born 1942: metathesis reactions and catalysts; Nobel Prize, 2005.
Alice Hamilton born 1869: occupational medicine; hazards of carbon monoxide, mercury, tetraethyllead, benzene, and others; first woman professor at Harvard.
Felix Hoffmann received US patent 644,077 for acetyl salicylic acid (better known as aspirin), 1900.
Karl Friedrich Wenzel died 1793 (birth date unknown c. 1740): stoichiometry; concentration determines the speed of chemical reactions.

February 28
Edward Goodrich Acheson received US patent number 492,767 for production of artificial silicon carbide ("Carborundum"), 1893.
Steven Chu: laser cooling and trapping of atoms; US Secretary of Energy; Nobel (physics), 1997.
Edmond Fremy born 1814: plumbates, stannates, and ferrates; preparation of anhydrous hydrogen fluoride; coloring of flowers and saponification of fats
Philip Showalter Hench born 1896: hormones of the adrenal cortex; Nobel Prize (Medicine), 1950
Linus Carl Pauling born 1901: molecular structure, bonding (hybrid orbitals), electronegativity, and resonance (The Nature of the Chemical Bond); Nobel Prize, 1954; Nobel Peace Prize, 1962
February 29
Heike Kamerlingh Onnes announced solidification of helium, 1908.

Chemistry History

Chemistry Knowledge History - July

July 1

Gerald Maurice Edelman 1929: structure of antibodies; Nobel Prize (Medicine), 1972.
Gladys Anderson Emerson 903: isolation and function of vitamin E (tocopherol); vitamin B deficiencies.
Alfred Goodman Gilman 1941: G-proteins and cellular signal transduction; Nobel prize (medicine), 1994.
Franz Joseph Müller von Reichenstein 1740: discovered tellurium (Te, element 52).

July 2

Richard Axel  1946: research on olfaction, one of the "chemical senses;" Nobel Prize (Medicine), 2004.
Elkan Rodgers Blout born 1919: protein conformation.

William Henry Bragg born 1862: X-ray crystallography (Bragg's law); Nobel Prize (Physics), 1915 with son William Lawrence.

Fritz Haber demonstrated nitrogen fixation process (Haber process for synthetic ammonia) to Badische Aniline und Soda-Fabrik (BASF), 1909.
Albert Ladenburg born 1842: synthesis of pyridine, piperidine, and other compounds
Jean'ne Marie Shreeve born 1933: synthetic fluorine chemistry, particularly fluorinated compounds of nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus; Garvan Medal, 1972.
Fritz Ullmann born 1872: Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry.
Paul Weisz born 1919: catalytic activity of artificial and natural zeolites.

July 3

Antoine-Jerome Balard announced discovery of bromine (Br, element 35) to Académie des Sciences, Paris, 1826.
Samuel Proctor Massie, Jr. born 1919: silicon chemistry;
Sergei Semenovich Nametkin born 1876: terpene chemistry; rearrangement of camphenes.

July 4
Ernst Otto Beckmann born 1853: Beckmann rearrangement in organic chemistry; Beckmann thermometer .
NASA Pathfinder landed on Mars, 1997. Unmanned mission included physical and chemical characterization of Martian surface.

July 5
American Cyanamid (now part of BASF Agricultural Products) organized, 1907.
Herbert Spencer Gasser born 1888: electrophysiology of nerves; Nobel Prize (Medicine), 1944.
John Howard Northrop born 1891: purification of enzymes and proteins; fermentation process for acetone manufacture; Nobel Prize, 1946.
William Macquorn Rankine born 1820: thermodynamics of steam engines; absolute temperature scale (Rankine scale). His article on science of engineering is very good.
Robert Williams of Merck, Sharp & Dohme Research Laboratories announced synthesis of vitamin B1, 1936.

July 6
William Hobson Mills born 1873: tetrahedral ammonium ions; materials for photography in red light.
Axel Hugo Theorell born 1903: structure of enzymes; crystallized myoglobin; Nobel Prize (Medicine), 1955.

July 7
Robert Goddard obtained a patent (US patent 1,102,653) for a liquid fuel rocket, 1914.
Camillo Golgi born 1843: neuroscience, including the so-called "black reaction" for staining nerve cells; Nobel Prize (Medicine), 1906.

July 8
Jason Cardelli reported in Science interstellar abundances of the heaviest elements yet detected in interstellar gas (including thallium and lead), 1994.

July 10
Kurt Alder born 1902: Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction, Nobel Prize, 1950 with Otto Diels.

July 11
Samuel Abraham Goudsmit born 1902: electron spin.
William Robert Grove born 1811: electrochemistry; fuel cells; conservation of energy
Theodore Harold Maiman born 1927: invented ruby laser (first operable optical laser, US patent 3,353,115; )

July 12
Claude Bernard born 1813: discovered glycogen; research on digestion.
Mildred Cohn born 1906: isotopic labeling and isotope effects
Elias James Corey born 1928: synthetic organic chemist, Nobel Prize, 1990.
George Eastman born 1854: inventor and manufacturer of Kodak films and cameras.
William Ramsay and Morris Travers discovered xenon (Xe, element 54).

July 13
Stanislao Cannizzaro born 1826:  Cannizzaro reaction in organic chemistry.

July 14
André Louis Debierne born 1874: radiochemistry, discovered actinium (Ac, element 89).
Jean-Baptiste-André Dumas born 1800: organic chemist (isolated anthracene from coal tar); vapor density method (Dumas method) for determination of atomic and molecular weights; theories of organic radicals and of chemical types.
Ferdinand II de' Medici born 1610: invented a sealed thermometer; patron of scientists, including Galileo.
Ei-ichi Negishi born 1935: palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis; Nobel Prize, 2010.
Mary Lura Sherrill born 1888: organic synthesis of antimalarial compounds; Garvan Medal, 1947. 
Geoffrey Wilkinson born 1921: inorganic chemistry (sandwich compounds, such as ferrocene; complex hydrides, homogeneous catalysis); Nobel Prize, 1973

July 15
William Baker born 1915: molecular structure; solid state materials; physical propoerties of polymers
Max Bodenstein born 1871: chemical kinetics, including chain reactions.
Albert Ghiorso born 1915: co-discoverer of transuranic elements americium (Am, element 95), curium (Cm, 96), berkelium (Bk, 97), californium (Cf, 98), einsteinium (Es, 99), fermium (Fm, 100), mendelevium (Md, 101), nobelium (No, 102), lawrencium (Lr, 103), rutherfordium (Rf, 104), dubnium (Db, 105; hahnium was proposed name), and seaborgium (Sg, 106).
Robert Bruce Merrifield born 1921: solid-phase peptide synthesis; Nobel Prize, 1984
The Royal Society (UK), one of the oldest scientific societies, was granted a charter by Charles II, 1662.

July 16
Atomic bomb test, Trinity Site, Alamogordo Air Force Base, 1945.
Joseph Goldberger born 1874: physician in the US public health service; linked pellagra to a dietary deficiency.
Irwin Rose born 1926: protein chemistry; Nobel Prize, 2004, "for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation."
Alfred Stock born 1876: boron hydrides, mercury poisoning.

July 17
Frederick Augustus Abel born 1827: co-inventor of cordite; Abel tester for petroleum flash point

July 18
Roald Hoffmann born 1937: molecular orbital theory; Woodward-Hoffmann rules (conservation of orbital symmetry); Nobel Prize, 1981.
Robert Hooke born 1635: best known as a physicist for his work on elasticity and a biologist for microscopy (Micrographia), Hooke also studied gases.
Hendrik Antoon Lorentz born 1853: structure of matter and optical properties; Zeeman effect; Nobel prize (Physics) 1902 with Zeeman.
Hartmut Michel born 1948: structure of photosynthetic proteins; Nobel Prize, 1988.
Frederick Dominic Rossini born 1899: numerical reference data in thermodynamics.

July 19
Eleuthère du Pont began construction of gunpowder factory (precursor of DuPont), 1802.
Allene Jeanes born 1906: food chemist, first woman to win USDA Distinguished Service Award, 1953.
Rosalyn Sussman Yalow born 1921: developed radioimmunoassay; Nobel Prize (Medicine) 1977.
July 20
Gerd Binnig born 1947: scanning tunneling microscope; Nobel Prize (Physics), 1986.
Tadeus Reichstein born 1897: hormones of the adrenal cortex; Nobel Prize (Medicine), 1950.
July 21
Georg Brandt born 1694: discovered cobalt (Co, element 27).
Rudolph Arthur Marcus born 1923: theory of electron transfer reactions; Nobel prize, 1992. Marcus is the M of RRKM theory; read a retrospective paper by Marcus.
Henri-Victor Regnault born 1810: thermometry and other thermal phenomena.

July 22
Selman Abraham Waksman born 1888: discovery of antitubercular agent streptomycin; Nobel prize (Medicine), 1952. the streptomycin patent (US 2,449,866).

July 23
Emma Perry Carr born 1880: ultraviolet spectra of hydrocarbons; first recipient of ACS Garvan Medal, 1937.
Icie Macy Hoobler born 1892: biochemistry related to nutrition of children, infants, and pregnant women
Vladimir Prelog born 1906: organic stereochemistry, including Cahn-Ingold-Prelog rules for nomenclature; Nobel prize, 1975.

July 24
William de Wiveleslie Abney born 1843: color photography and its chemistry.

July 25
Colgate-Palmolive incorporated 1923
Rosalind Franklin born 1920: X-ray crystallography of DNA;
Andreas Libavius died 1616 (birth date unknown in 1540): author of Alchemia (or Alchymia) (perhaps first chemical textbook), fuming liquor of Libavius, ammonium sulfate, chemical analysis.

July 26
Isaac Babbitt born 1799: invented babbitt's metal for bearings (an alloy of tin, antimony, and copper)

Paul Walden born 1863: electrical conductivity and electrolytic dissociation; Walden inversion.

July 27
Bertram Borden Boltwood born 1870: early radioactivity and radiochemistry research.
Friedrich Dorn born 1848: discovered radon (Rn, element 86), an "emanation of radium" in 1900.
Hans Fischer born 1881: research on hemin, chlorophyll, porphyrins, and related compounds; Nobel prize, 1930

July 28
James Curtis Booth born 1810: methods for refining gold-silver bullion at US Mint, Philadelphia.

July 29
Heinz Fraenkel-Conrat born 1910: separated viral RNA from protein and showed that RNA was the active agent, turning attention to the role of nucleic acids in heredity.
Walter Julius Reppe born 1892: industrial organic chemistry (at BASF); high-pressure reactions of acetylene.
Isidor Isaac Rabi born 1898: atomic and molecular beam spectroscopy; nuclear magnetic properties; Nobel Prize (Physics), 1944

July 30

July 31
August Beer born 1825: Beer-Lambert law relating absorption of light to concentration of absorbing material
Paul Delos Boyer born 1918: enzymatic mechanism of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis; Nobel Prize, 1997.
The first US patent was in industrial chemistry, issued in 1790 to Samuel Hopkins on a process for making potash and pearl ashes (signed by President Washington).
Stephanie Kwolek born 1923: invented Kevlar® (US patent 3,819,587); Perkin medal 1997.
Primo Levi born 1919: chemically-trained memoirist; Survival in Auschwitz and The Periodic Table.
Sofia Simmonds born 1917: amino acid metabolism of bacteria; Garvan Medal, 1969.
Friedrich Wöhler born 1800: synthesis of organic compounds from inorganic materials (oxalic acid and urea); isolated aluminum (Al, element 13) and beryllium (Be, 4); preparation of acetylene (ethyne) from calcium carbide

Chemsitry History

Updated 23 Nov 2015, 21 July 2012

Chemistry Knowledge History -November

November 1
Antoine Lavoisier reported to the French Academy of Sciences that sulfur and phosphorus gain weight upon heating, 1772. .
First detonation of a thermonuclear fusion bomb (H-bomb) at Elugelab Atoll, Marshall Islands, 1952.

November 2
Karl Benz receives patent (German patent 37435) for first automobile with internal combustion engine, 1886.
DuPont begins mass-production of the first commercially available synthetic rubber, DuPrene, in 1931.
Conrad Willgerodt born 1841: organic chemist interested in conversion of internal ketones to terminal thioamides (Willgerodt reaction)

November 3
American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists founded, 1921.

Daniel Rutherford born 1749: discovered nitrogen (N, element 7); distinguished between carbon dioxide and nitrogen; invented maximum and minimum thermometer

Carlton Schwerdt announced crystallization of poliomyelitis virus at University of California, 1955.

Jokichi Takamine born 1854: biochemist and industrialist, isolated adrenaline (epinephrine).

November 4

Boris Aleksandrovich Arbuzov born 1903: organic chemist; free radicals of triarylmethane derivatives, terpenes, phosphorous-containing heterocycles

James Douglas born 1837: mining engineer: Hunt-Douglas process for copper extraction; established first commercial electrolytic copper plant.

Charles Kuen Kao born 1933: fiber optics for communication; Nobel Prize (physics), 2009

Karl Friedrich Mohr born 1806: analytical chemistry, particularly titrimetric methods; Mohr's salt (ferrous ammonium sulfate, Fe(NH4)2(SO4)2.

Charles Lee Reese born 1862: manufacture of dyes and explosives.

William Hyde Wollaston presented his "synoptic scale of equivalents" to the Royal Society, 1813.

X-10 fission reactor, the first to produce large amounts of radioisotopes for further research, went critical at Oak Ridge, 1943.

November 5
Neil Kensington Adam born 1891: surface film monolayers; two-dimensional state of matter at water-air interface;
William Phillips born 1948: laser cooling of atoms; Nobel Prize (physics), 1997.

Paul Sabatier born 1854: catalysis in organic chemistry; hydrogenation of oils to solid fats; Nobel Prize, 1912

Marc Tiffeneau  born 1873: organic molecular transpositions (e.g., Tiffeneau-Demjanov rearrangement); pharmacology.

November 6

Isidor (Ian) Morris Heilbron born 1886: synthesis of natural products such as vitamins A and D

November 7

Marie Curie  born 1867: codiscoverer of radium (Ra, element 88) and polonium (Po, 84) with husband Pierre; other fundamental work in radioactivity; Nobel Prize (physics), 1903; Nobel Prize (chemistry), 1911. Curium (Cm, element 96) is named after Marie and Pierre.

Eric Kandel born 1929: molecular mechanisms of synapse modification, including protein phosphorylation; Nobel Prize (Medicine), 2000.

Lise Meitner born 1878: nuclear fission; discoverer of protactinium (Pa, element 91). Meitnerium (Mt, element 109) is named after her.

Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman born 1888: Raman effect (inelastic scattering of light; ); Nobel Prize (physics), 1930.

November 8
Lawrence Elgin Glendenin born 1918: codiscoverer of promethium (Pm, element 61)
Herbert Sander Gutowsky born 1919: rotational and NMR spectroscopy.
Darleane Christian Hoffman born 1926: production and study of transuranium elements; discovery of 244Pu in nature; Garvan Medal, 1990; Priestley Medal, 2000.
Wilhelm Röntgen discovered X-rays, 1895.
Johannes Rydberg born 1854: empirical relationship for series of atomic spectral lines later provided clues on atomic structure; Rydberg constant named after him

November 9

Thomas Drummond heated a ball of lime in front of a reflector, 1825. This first practical use of limelight leads to improvements in theater and lighthouse lighting.

Element 110 (Darmstadtium, Ds) created (3 atoms) at GSI, Darmstadt, Germany, 1994.

Grace Medes born 1886: metabolism of fatty acids and of sulfur and sulfur-containing amino acids

Ronald George Wreyford Norrish born 1897: kinetics of extremely fast reactions; Nobel Prize, 1967

Jack Szostak born 1948: telomerase; Nobel Prize (medicine), 2009.

November 10

Andrès Manuel Del Rio born 1764: discovered vanadium (V, element 23 ), which he called erthronium

Ernst Otto Fischer born 1918: structure of ferrocene; Nobel Prize, 1973.

November 11

Discovery of cosmic rays announced, 1925, in Madison, WI.
Glenn Seaborg announced discovery of americium (Am, element 95) and curium (Cm, 96) on the Quiz Kids radio program, 1945, in response to a question.

November 12

Jacques Charles born 1746: Charles' law relating temperature and volume of a gas; invented hydrogen balloon.

John Dalton announced the first example of the law of multiple proportions in 1802 (in a paper on atmospheric gases).

Antoine Lavoisier described to the French Royal Academy of Sciences in 1783 experiments that show water to be a compound, not an element.

John William Strutt (Lord Rayleigh) born 1842: codiscoverer of argon (Ar, element 18); Nobel Prize (physics), 1904.

November 13
Edward Adelbert Doisy born 1893: research on sex hormones; isolated theelin (estrone) and vitamin K; Nobel Prize (Medicine), 1943

November 14

Leo Baekeland born 1863: invented Bakelite plastic (phenol-formaldehyde resins, US patent 942,699) and Velox paper; president of Electrochemical Society

Frederick Grant Banting born 1891: extraction of insulin and its role in diabetes; Nobel Prize (medicine), 1923.

Harry Barkus Gray born 1935: inorganic and bioinorganic chemistry (electronic structure, spectroscopy, mechanisms)

Auguste Laurent born 1807: discovered anthracene; obtained phthalic acid from naphthalene; identified carbolic acid with phenol; nucleus theory of organic radicals; constructed a saccharimeter

November 15
Carl Gassner, Jr. received US patent 373,064 for a dry cell battery, 1887

Albertus Magnus died 1280 (birth date unknown in 1200): discovered arsenic (As, 33); first to use the term affinity in the chemical sense;

Humphry Davy named chlorine (Cl, element 17), 1810. Chlorine had been called oxymuriatic acid.

November 16

Joel Hildebrand born 1881: liquids and solutions; introduced helium (He, element 2) into deep-sea diving
November 17

George Thomas Beilby born 1850: invented process for retorting shale; industrial synthesis of alkaline cyanides

November 18

Seth Boyden born 1788: invented a process for manufacturing malleable iron, but did not patent his inventions

Louis Daguerre born 1789 : photographic pioneer, inventor of the daguerreotype
George Bogdan Kistiakowsky born 1900: reaction rates, science policy.
George Wald born 1906: chemistry of vision; Nobel Prize (Medicine), 1967.

November 19
Humphry Davy announced the isolation of sodium (Na, element 11) and potassium (K, 19) to the Royal Society, 1807. (Read excerpts of Davy's announcement.)
Mikhail Vasil'evich Lomonosov born 1711: suggested law of conservation of mass; suggested that heat was a form of motion; recorded freezing of mercury; opponent of phlogiston theory
James Batcheller Sumner born 1887: enzymes and proteins; crystallized urease and showed it to be a protein; Nobel Prize, 1946
Earl Sutherland born 1915: mechanism of hormone action, including role of cyclic AMP; Nobel Prize (Medicine), 1971.

November 20
Karl von Frisch born 1886: zoologist, chemical and visual perception of fish and bees; Nobel Prize (medicine), 1973.

November 21
Vladimir Nikolaievich Ipatieff born 1867: high-pressure catalysis; petroleum chemistry (at Universal Oil Products Riverside Laboratory).
Hieronymus Theodor Richter [auf Deutsch] born 1824: codiscoverer of indium (In, element 49).

November 22
Andrew Fielding Huxley born 1917: co-discoverer of ionic mechanism of neural conductance; gransdon of biologist Thomas Henry Huxley; Nobel Prize (Medicine), 1963.
The Manned Spacecraft Center (now the Johnson Space Center announced a process to extract water and oxygen from moon soil, 1970. (Learn more about human space flight and about water on the moon.)
Dmitri Mendeleev stated that gallium (Ga, element 31) is identical to eka-aluminum, 1875. View early versions (1869, 1871) of Mendeleev's periodic table or his retrospective of the periodic law 20 years later.

November 23

Rachel Fuller Brown born 1898: biochemist, co-discoverer of the fungicide nystatin (US patent 2,797,183), the first antibiotic used effectively to treat human fungal infections.

Henry Gwyn Jeffreys Moseley born 1887: discovered that X-ray frequency is related to atomic number of elements.
IIT - JEE:  (

Johannes Diderik van der Waals born 1837: equation of state for non-ideal gases (van der Waals equation), intermolecular interactions (van der Waals forces), electrolytic dissociation, capilarity; Nobel Prize (Physics), 1910.

November 24
Robert Banks born 1921: polyethylene and polypropylene (US patent 2,825,721).

November 25
Julius Robert von Mayer born 1814: conservation of energy

November 26

Elizabeth Helen Blackburn born 1948: telomerase; Nobel Prize (medicine), 2009.

Charles Hatchett announced discovery of columbium (niobium, Nb, element 41) before Royal Society, 1801.

John Alexander Reina Newlands born 1837: classification of elements ("law of octaves")

Charles Adolphe Wurtz born 1817: synthesis of hydrocarbons (Wurtz reaction), methyl & ethyl amines, phosphorous oxychloride, and glycol.

Karl Ziegler born 1898: polymerization through organometallic catalysis; plastics; Nobel Prize, 1963.

November 27

Lars Onsager born 1903: thermodynamics of irreversible reactions; Nobel Prize, 1968

Anders Celsius born 1701: set up a centigrade temperature scale with 0 at the boiling point of water and 100 at the freezing point. Today's Celsius scale has 0 at the freezing point and 100 at the boiling point.

Chaim Weizmann born 1874: biological synthesis of acetone; first president of Israel.

November 28
Maurice Arveson born 1902: petroleum technology, including hydrocarbon conversion patent 2,360,463; president of the American Chemical Society.
First pure compound of berkelium (Bk, element 97) announced, based on work at the University of California, Berkeley, 1962.
John Wesley Hyatt born 1837: inventor of the plastic celluloid.

Alfred Nobel obtained a patent for smokeless gunpowder (Ballistite), 1887. )

November 29

Wallace Broecker born 1931: ocean cirulcation; carbon cycle; global climate change.
Yuan Tseh Lee born 1936: molecular beam study of gas-phase reactions; Nobel Prize, 1986.

November 30

Chlorotetracycline, a broad-spectrum antibiotic (also known as aureomycin), was isolated by Benjamin Minge Duggar at American Cyanamid (now part of BASF Agricultural Products), 1948.

Henry Taube born 1915: electron-transfer reactions; Nobel Prize, 1983.

Andrew Victor Schally born 1926: function and synthesis of hypothalamic hormones; Nobel Prize (medicine), 1977.

Smithson Tennant born 1761: discovered iridium (Ir, element 77) and osmium (Os, 76); determined that diamonds are pure carbon.

Egor Egorevich Vagner (also known as Georg Wagner) born 1849: terpene chemistry; permanganate hydroxylation of alkenes; Wagner-Meerwein rearrangements

Chemsitry History

Chemistry Knowledge History - December

Chemsitry History - December

December 1
The Drunkometer, first practical breath test for alcohol, was patented in 1936 by Rolla Neil Harger (US patent 2,062,785).

Martin Heinrich Klaproth born 1743: discovered uranium (actually uranium dioxide) (U, element 92) from pitchblende; discovered zirconium (Zr, 40); codiscovered cerium (Ce, 58); rediscovered chromium (Cr, 24).

Martin Rodbell born 1925: G-proteins and their role in signaling in cells; Nobel prize (medicine), 1994

December 2

Paul (Ching-Wu) Chu born 1941: high-temperature superconducting materials.

Isabella Karle born (as Isabella Lugoski) 1921: three-dimensional structure of molecules via diffraction of X-rays and electrons.

First artificially initiated self-sustained nuclear fission reaction (Chicago pile one) under Stagg Field, University of Chicago, 1942.

Nikolai Matveyevich Kishner born 1867: Wolff-Kishner reduction of aldehydes and ketones.
Ludwig Knorr born 1859: synthesis of heterocyclic compounds.

December 3

Paul Josef Crutzen born 1933: meteorology and atmospheric chemistry including ozone chemistry; Nobel Prize, 1995. Link to his 1970 paper on nitrogen oxides and ozone.
Carl Koller born 1857: biological effects of cocaine; pioneer in local anaesthesia (with cocaine).
Richard Kuhn born 1900: structure and synthesis of vitamins and carotenoids; refused Nobel Prize in 1938 on instructions of Nazi government, but received it in 1949.
Ellen Swallow Richards born 1842: analytical chemistry, particularly as applied to water quality; founder of the home economics movement
Karl Manne Georg Siegbahn born 1886: X-ray spectroscopy; father of 1981 Nobel laureate electron spectroscopist Kai Siegbahn; Nobel Prize (physics), 1924.

December 4

Alfred Day Hershey born 1908: microbial genetics; Nobel Prize (medicine), 1969.
Charles Holmes Herty born 1867: chemistry of natural resources; paper chemistry.

December 5

Carl Ferdinand Cori born 1896: carbohydrate metabolism; discovered how glycogen is catalytically converted; Nobel Prize (medicine), 1947 (with wife Gerty)
Werner Heisenberg born 1901: quantum mechanics (matrix mechanics); Heisenberg uncertainty principle; Nobel Prize (physics),

Christian Friedrich Schönbein received US patent 4,874 for guncotton, 1846.

December 6

Charles Frederick Chandler born 1836: researcher in sugar, petroleum, and illuminating gas industries; a founder of the American Chemical Society
Rudolph Fittig born 1835: organic synthesis (e.g., lactones, toluene); Wurtz-Fittig reaction; discovered diphenyl phenanthrene and coumarone (benzofuran)
Louis-Joseph Gay-Lussac born 1778: law of expansion of gases with increasing temperature; law of combining volumes of gases; isolated boron (B, element 5); research on chlorine, fermentation, prussic acid, and composition of water.
Charles Martin Hall born 1863: discovered method of extracting aluminum electrolytically (US patent 400,665) from bauxite
Nicolas Leblanc born 1742: Leblanc process for making sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) from common salt.
George Porter born 1920: developed flash photolysis technique for chemical kinetics; Nobel Prize, 1967
George Eugene Uhlenbeck born 1900: electron spin.

December 7

First thermosetting manmade plastic ("Bakelite") patented, 1909 (US patents 942,699 and 942,700 to Leo Baekeland): reaction involved phenol and formaldehyde.

Linus Pauling published Vitamin C and the Common Cold, 1970.
Theodor Schwann born 1810: named and investigated pepsin; coined the word metabolism.
December 8
Eugene Cook Bingham born 1878: plastic flow and viscosity
Thomas Robert Cech born 1947: discovered cellular role of ribonucleic acid (RNA); Nobel Prize, 1989.
Jan Ingenhousz born 1730: early work on the phenomenon of photosynthesis, including a description of the production of oxygen by plants
Thomas Edward Thorpe born 1845: atomic weights, viscosity of liquids, and chemical analyses

December 9

Claude-Louis Berthollet born 1749: steps toward the law of mass action; analysis of ammonia; discovered bleaching action of chlorine; discovered composition of prussic acid (HCN); showed that acids need not contain oxygen.
Fritz Haber born 1868: high-pressure synthesis of ammonia from hydrogen and nitrogen (Haber process); Nobel Prize, 1918
William Nunn Lipscomb, Jr. born 1919: three-dimensional structure of enzymes and proteins; research on boranes; Nobel Prize, 1976.
Eilhard Mitscherlich read paper on isomorphism to Royal Academy of Science, Berlin, 1819.
Carl Wilhelm Scheele born 1742: discovered chlorine (Cl, element 17); isolated oxygen ("fire air"); Scheele's green; isolated phosphorus (P, element 15) from bone ash; research on action of light on silver salts; synthesized organic acids

December 10

Norbert Rillieux received US Patent 4879 for multiple effect evaporator for sugar refining, 1846.

December 11

Max Born born 1882: quantum mechanics; interpretation of the wave function (Born interpretation); Born-Oppenheimer approximation in molecular quantum mechanics; Nobel Prize (physics), 1954.
Charles Frederick Cross born 1855: rayon manufacture (cellulose acetate), cellulose and papermaking.
Paul Greengard born 1925: biochemical action of dopamine and other neurotransmitters; Nobel Prize (Medicine), 2000.
Vitamin B12 isolated by Merck, Sharp & Dohme Research Laboratories, 1947.
Horace Wells, dentist, first used nitrous oxide as an anesthetic, 1844.

December 12

Eugen Baumann born 1846: iodine in thyroid.
First pure compound of californium (Cf, element 98) announced at 1960 meeting of American Nuclear Society.
William Henry born 1775 : discovered that the solubility of a gas in a liquid is proportional to the gas pressure (Henry's law).
Alfred Werner born 1866: coordination chemistry; inorganic complexes, stereochemistry; Nobel Prize, 1913

December 13

Olaf Kristian Birkeland born 1867: first industrial fixing of nitrogen.
Casein fiber patented, 1938, by Earle Whittier and Stephen Gould.
William Henry Chandler born 1841: academic chemistry laboratory design and instruction in the US.
Charles Alfred Coulson born 1910: Valence and molecular structure calculations.
Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner born 1780: noted triads of elements with similar properties and a progression of atomic weight; catalytic action of platinum; invented instantaneous-lighting lamp (Döbereiner lamp)

Max Josef von Pettenkofer born 1818: calorimeter for human energy changes.

December 14

Max Planck introduced the notion of light as quantized energy packets to the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft, (German Physical Society) 1900.
Glenn Seaborg, Edwin McMillan, Joseph Kennedy, and Arthur Wahl bombarded uranium oxide with 16-MeV deuterons to produce plutonium (Pu, element 94) in 1940.
Edward Lawrie Tatum born 1909: discovered genes which regulate some chemical processes; Nobel Prize (medicine), 1958

December 15
 Antoine-Henri Becqurel born 1852: discovered radioactivity (Becquerel rays) from uranium salts; Nobel Prize (physics), 1903.
Maurice Wilkins born 1916: X-ray crystallography of biological materials; DNA structure; Nobel Prize (medicine), 1962.

December 16
Johann Wilhelm Ritter born 1776: electrolyzed water, collecting hydrogen and oxygen; discovered ultraviolet rays

December 17

Émilie du Châtelet born 1706: chemical nature of fire

Humphry Davy born 1778: isolated barium (Ba, element 56), calcium (Ca, 20), magnesium (Mg, 12), potassium (K, 19), sodium (Na, 11), and strontium (Sr, 38); co-discovered boron (B, 5); recognized as elementary and named chlorine (Cl, 17); invented Davy mine safety lamp. His first work on heat and friction includes some insightful ideas and dubious experiments.

Michael Faraday enunciated first law of electrolysis, "Chemical power, like magnetic force, is in direct proportion to the absolute quantity of electricity which passes," 1832.

Fission of uranium (U, element 92) by neutrons detected by Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann in Berlin, 1938; the interpretation of the event as fission would await a paper by Lise Meitner and Otto Frisch.

Willard Frank Libby born 1908: developed carbon dating; Nobel Prize, 1960.

John Lawrence Smith born 1818: toxicology and chemistry of minerals

December 18

Mary Letitia Caldwell born 1890: isolation, structure, and activity of starch enzymes (amylases).

Joseph John (J. J.) Thomson born 1856: characterized "cathode rays", discovering a particle (the electron) with much smaller mass to charge ratio than any known up to that time; Nobel Prize (Physics), 1906. Thomson went on to determine the charge of cathode rays and identify them with other manifestations of electrons; his work on positive rays led to the development of mass spectroscopy; his work on the structure of atoms include his "plum pudding model" and an argument that the number of electrons in an atom was comparable to its atomic mass (in atomic mass units).

Edgar Bright Wilson born 1908: vibrational spectroscopy (Molecular Vibrations ).

December 19

Thomas Andrews born 1813: discovered critical temperatures of gases (temperature above which they cannot be liquefied); read his lecture on the continuity of the gaseous and liquid states.

Berkelium (Bk, element 97) discovered by Kenneth Street, Jr., Stanley G. Thompson, Glenn T. Seaborg, and Albert Ghiorso using ion-exchange chromatography at University of California, Berkeley, 1949.

Pauline Beery Mack born 1891: nutritional content of meat and vegetables; bone density studies; laundering behavior of textiles; Garvan Medal, 1950.

Alan Walsh born 1916: atomic absorption spectroscopy.

December 20

Einsteinium (Es, element 99) discovered by  Louise Smith, Sherman Fried, Gary Higgins; Albert Ghiorso, Rod Spence, Glenn Seaborg, Paul Fields and John Huizenga using ion-exchange chromatography at University of California, Berkeley, 1952.


Thomas Graham 1805: absorption of gases, osmosis, colloids, and dialysis; Graham's law of effusion

Jaroslav Heyrovsky 1890: invented polarographic method of analysis; Nobel Prize, 1959.

December 21

John Mayow baptized 1641 (birth date uncertain): discovered that air contained two gases, one of which ("spiritus nitro-aerous") supported life and combustion.

Hermann Joseph Muller born 1890: theory of genes; mutation by X-rays; Nobel Prize (medicine), 1946.

More Details on the topics

December 22

William Lloyd Evans born 1870: chemistry of carbohydrates;

Arie Jan Haagen-Smit born 1900: nature and source of smog; smog abatement.

Vladimir Markovnikov born 1838: synthesis of cyclobutane and cyclopentane derivatives; Markovnikov's rule for additions to alkenes.

John Clarke Slater born 1900: orbital approaches to quantum chemistry (Slater-type orbitals, Slater determinant); tetrahedral carbon compounds.

December 23

Axel Fredrik Cronstedt born 1722: discovered nickel (Ni, element 28) and zeolite; classification of minerals
Helen Abbott Michael born 1857: chemical composition of plants; synthetic organic chemistry;

Paul Schützenberger born 1829: physiological chemistry.

December 24

James Prescott Joule born 1818: thermodynamics; mechanical equivalent of heat (view his apparatus; Joule-Thomson effect (temperature of gas falls when the gas expands without doing work); kinetic theory of gases

Benjamin Rush born 1745: signer of Declaration of Independence; published first American chemistry textbook

Augustus Vernon-Harcourt born 1834: invented 10-candlepower standard lamp using pentane.

December 25

Herman Frasch born 1851: sulfur mining (Frasch process, developed in Louisiana)
William Gregor born 1761: discovered titanium (Ti, element 22); analysis of minerals
Gerhard Herzberg born 1904: spectroscopic analysis of electronic structure and geometry of molecules and radicals; Nobel Prize, 1971
Isaac Newton born 1642: made fundamental contributions to physics (gravitation, optics, mechanics) and mathematics (calculus); researcher in alchemy.
Ludwig Ferdinand Wilhelmy born 1812: chemical kinetics; first measurement of homogeneous reaction rate.
Adolf Windaus born 1876: synthesis of histamine; structure of cholesterol; research on steroids; Nobel Prize, 1928

December 26

Clemens Winkler born 1838: discovered germanium (Ge, element 32); analysis of gases
Marie and Pierre Curie discover radium (element 88, Ra), 1898.
Ali Javan born 1928: inventor of helium-neon laser, the first gas laser and first continuous-wave (CW) laser.

December 27
Gerardus Johannes Mulder born 1802: protein analysis; physiological chemistry (including chemistry of wine).
Louis Pasteur born 1822: research in stereochemistry (optical activity of tartaric acids), fermentation, decomposition, microbes, and anti-microbial treatment of beverages (pasteurization)

December 28
Ernest Eliel born 1921: organic stereochemistry and conformational analysis
Karl Remigius Fresenius born 1818: qualitative and quantitative analytical chemistry
Kary Mullis born 1944: developed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for making copies of DNA; Nobel Prize, 1993
Wilhelm Röntgen announced his discovery of new rays, 1895, inspiring research that would lead to a thousand papers on X-rays within a year.
Lewis Hastings Sarett synthesized cortisone at Merck, Sharp & Dohme Research Laboratories, 1944.

December 29

Discovery of heavy water (D2O) announced, 1931.
Ellen Gleditsch born 1879: nuclear chemistry; half life of radium.
Charles Goodyear born 1800: vulcanization of rubber (US patent 3,633)
Helen Vaughn Michel born 1932: neutron activation analysis, with applications to archeology and geology
Alexander Parkes born 1813: invented parkesine (later called xylonite, a kind of celluloid); electroplating

December 30

William David Coolidge of General Electric is issued US Patent 1,082,933 for ductile tungsten for incandescent bulb filaments, 1913.

December 31

Hermann Boerhaave born 1668: physician and chemist, Elementa Chemiae
Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac read his memoir on combining volumes of gases to the Philomathic Society of Arcueil, 1808.
Colin Garfield Fink born 1881: electrochemical research, development, industry, and education; president of the Electrochemical Society
Gilbert Stork born 1921: organic synthesis; first stereorational synthesis (cantharidin, 1951); stereoselective total synthesis of quinine.

Science History  in December

Updated  23/11/2015, 20/12/2014

Saturday, June 6, 2015

2. Solid State - JEE Main - Core Revision Points

Importance of  Core Revision Points: Core Revision Points are important because if you remember them strongly, many more points related to them will come out of your memory and help you to answer question and problems. Read them many times and make sure you remember them very strongly.

JEE Syllabus (2015)  on Solid State Topic

Solid State: Classification of solids: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea); Unit cell and lattices, packing in solids (fcc, bcc and hcp lattices), voids,   Bragg’s Law and its applications; calculations involving unit cell parameters, imperfection in solids; Electrical, magnetic and dielectric properties.

Jauhar, CBSE XII class

Sections in the Chapter

2.1 Space Lattices and Unit Cell
2.2 Close Packing in Crystalline Solids
2.3 Interstitial Sites or Interstitial Voids
2.4 Types of Cubic Crystals and Number of Atoms per Unit Cell
2.5 Experimental Methods of Determining Crystal Structure: X Rays Diffraction
2.6 Coordination Number and Radius Ratio
2.7 Ionic Radii
2.8 Calculation of Density of a Crystal from its Structure
2.9 Structures of Ionic Compounds
2.10 Imperfections in solids
2.11 Properties of solids
2.12 Amorphous solids

Solid State - Revision Points

The main content covered in the chapter is about the formation of crystals in solids. Last section 2.12 is about amorphous solids which are not crystalline solids.

Solids can be broadly classified into two categories: crystalline and amorphous.

Crystalline solids

The outstanding features are its flat faces and share edges which in a well developed form are usually arranged symmetrically.  Therefore, there is a high degree of internal order throughout the crystal. There is a definite pattern constantly repeating in space that forms the crystal. This order in the crystal is known as long-range order.

Amorphous solids

Amorphous solids are not crystals and they do not have long range order but have short-range order. An ordered arrangement exists around some atoms, molecules or ions only up to short distances. The same order will not be found around other atoms or molecules in the solid at another place. In many was amorphous solids are more closely related to liquids and are therefore regarded as supercooled liquids with high viscosity.  Some crystalline materials can be converted into amorphous or glassy form by rapidly cooling the melt. Freezing the vapours also gives rise to amorphous solids.

Bonds Present in  Solids

Molecular bonds:  In these solids, the constituent particles are molecules. The molecules are held together by weak Van der Waals forces. Examples are iodine, ice and solid carbon dioxide.

Ionic bonds:  Ionic solids have positively and negatively charged ions which are arranged in crystal form and held together by strong electrostatic forces. Examples are salts like NaCl, NaNO3, LiF and Na2SO4 etc.

Covalent bonds:  In these solids, the constituent particles are atoms and they are held together by covalent bonds. Examples are diamond, silicon carbide, and silica.

Metallic bonds: In solids with metallic bonds, positive kernels are immersed in a sea of mobile electrons. The forces between the constituents, positive kernels and electrons form the metallic bonds. These bonds are present in metals like copper, nickel etc.

2.1 Space Lattice and Unit Cell

The crystalline solids have their constituent particles - molecules, ions or atoms at specific locations in a three dimensional space, the basic shape of which repeats many times to form the crystalline solid.  The arrangement of this infinite set of points at which the constituent particles of the solid exist is called space lattice.

Space Lattice

A space lattice is a regular arrangement of the  constituent particles of a crystalline solid in three dimensional space. These points are called lattice points.

Unit Cell

A unit cell is the smallest repeating unit in space lattice.

Parameters to describe a unit cell

Six parameters are required.  The unit cell is assumed to be formed of straightline in three axes.

These the three basic vectors along three crystallographic axes are termed (a,b, and c). Three angles are there between the crystallographic axes (α,β,γ). The angle α is between the edges b and c, The angle β is between edges c and a. The angle γ is between the edges b and a.

Seven Crystal Systems

Crystals can be classified into seven categories

Triclinic -  a is not equal to b  is not equal to - (α,β,γ) are different and not equal to 90 degrees



Trigonal or Rhombohedral




2.2   Close Packing in Crystalline Solids

In the formation of crystals, closed packing of the constituent particles takes place.

Square Pattern

To understand arrangement of the particles in a solid one can visualise four particles arranged as a square. In this one particle assumed as a sphere is above another particles and four such sphere form a square and the pattern is repeated. But this pattern is not the usual pattern because only 52.4% of the available space becomes occupied in this square pattern of packing.

Hexagonal Pattern

In hexagonal close packing of particles (assumed as spheres), the spheres in the second row are placed in the depressions between the spheres in the first row. (In earlier square pattern, a sphere is placed on another sphere. But now a sphere is placed in the depression between two spheres in  the row below. In this packing, 60.4% of space gets occupied. Hence this hexagonal close packing gives more close packing.

Co-ordination Number

The number of spheres which are touching a given sphere in packing arrangement is called co-ordination number. Thus in two dimensional representation coordination number is 4 in square arrangement and six in hexagonal arrangement.

2.3 Interstitial Sites or Interstitial Voids

In the packed structure of the crystalline solid, there are hollow spaces between particles. These holes are voids are called interstitial sites or interstitial voids. Two important interstitial sites are 1. Tetrahedral interstitial site.  (2) Octahedral interstitial site.

2.4 Types of Cubic Crystals and Number of Atoms per Unit Cell

There are three common types of cubic crystals.

1. Simple cubic
2. Body centred cubic
3. Face centred cubic or cubic close packing

2.5 Experimental Methods of Determining Crystal Structure: X Rays Diffraction

The structure of solid is studied by X-ray diffraction methods.

Bragg Equation:

n lamba = 2d sin theta

where d = distance between the planes of the constituent particles of the  crystal.
lamba = wave length of the x-ray used.
n =  1,2,3 etc.  standing for the serial order of the diffracted beam.

2.6 Coordination Number and Radius Ratio
2.7 Ionic Radii
2.8 Calculation of Density of a Crystal from its Structure
2.9 Structures of Ionic Compounds
2.10 Imperfections in solids
2.11 Properties of solids
2.12 Amorphous solids

close packed structure of solids (cubic), packing in fcc, bcc and hcp lattices;

packing of crystals;
Body centred cubic(bcc),
Hexagonal closed packed (hcp) and

cubical close packed (ccp)

Point defects: Schottsky defects, Frenkel defects

See an Oxford Video on Crystal Structure
09. Geometry of Solids I: Crystal Structure in Real Space

Good Websites for Solid State Topic

Updated 6 June 2015
Originally published  22 May 2015